Beren and Lúthien: New Tolkien book in 2017!

Source: Beren and Lúthien: New Tolkien book in 2017! by James Moffett

Great news to all Tolkien fans!

As I’m sure you’ve all heard by now, the second of the Tolkien’s “Great Tales” will find itself on shelves as a standalone publication in May 2017, HarperCollins announced.

The book, which will compile together all known versions of the story, will be edited by Christopher Tolkien and illustrated by Alan Lee. Its publication will coincide with the 10th anniversary since the publication of The Children of Húrin.

The words “new” might be somewhat deceiving though as, somewhat similar to The Children of Húrin, this publication will feature existent material that is spread across the entire The History of Middle-earth series, and it is unclear whether any new text will be included.

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An Introduction to Zoology

Source: An Introduction to Zoology by Sameh Fouad

Introduction

Many scientists invented the evolution of living organisms long time ago. Different theories have been discussed. Some of them are good, others are not accurate. The study of evolution had led to the study of the life cycle of organisms and the survival strategies that organisms follow in the changing environments. It is crucial to study mitosis and cell division processes in the animals and draw a comparison between replication processes in different species. It shows that there are several differences and little similarities in those species. Another an important mechanism that is unique in animal species is the homeostatic mechanism. Another area of interest that we need to discuss is the architectural patterns of the levels of organization of animal. The importance of understanding these patterns in the sentence and survival of organisms. The modern theory of evolution has several implications in several areas. The critical evaluation of these implications can help to understand the impact of this theory on our life. Finally, phenotype and inheritance patterns are influenced by the environmental changes.

Evolution Theories

Several theories of evolution related to the animals. I will discuss the most relevant theories that I believe. In 1801, John Baptise Lamarck (Evolution.berkeley.edu, 2016) proposed a theory of evolution. It states that the organisms change their behavior as the environment change. If organisms’ organs are used more frequently, it will develop in their lifetime. He also stated the theory of Use and Disuse. He argued that the giraffe, for example, had a short neck. It made the nerve fluid to flow into its neck and stretch it. This property would inherit in its offspring. He also invented the theory of Transition of Acquired Characteristics. I think this theory is not accurate for two reasons. Firstly, there is no evidence in the fossil records that there were different species of giraffe that has a short neck. Secondly, if we considered this theory, so the offspring of the swimmer will have long legs or stretched body.  Another theory that based on the catastrophic events on the Earth, George Cuvier (1769- 1832) (Anthro.palomar.edu, 2016)argued that the significant events such as great floods, and the rapid formation of mountain chains have led to killing plant and animals that are lived during these periods. I partly agreed with this idea, as the fossil records showed some of the unconformities in the strata analysis, but again here there is no evidence that these events had killed all animals and plants. There is also no evidence that these events helped in the evolution of animals. Darwin Theory and Natural selection have been discussed as the most accurate theory that explains the evolution of animals. Some animals can survive a specific environment by natural selection. According to the hereditary characteristics of animals, they have different chances to survive. The number of offsprings and the survival of the offspring determines how big the next generation will be (G, 2014). I would maintain that I like the theory of natural selection and it is more accurate and reasonable rather than Lamarck’s and Cuvier’s theories.

The Life Cycle of Organisms

A life cycle can be defined as a description of stages that an individual organism passes through between the time of born until the date of producing offspring (Olson, 2016). The life cycle of an organism has many stages. It starts from the juvenile stage, as the organism grows and mature, then the reproductive stage in which the organism can produce offspring. Some organisms have different life cycles in order to adapt to survival. The life cycles of an organism can be simple such as in human as the morphological characteristics still the same in all stages. Another type of life cycle is complex. In this life cycle, the organism can change morphology, its environment, and diet as they transfer from a stage to another, for example, the monarch butterfly ‘Danaus plexippus’. The stages of the monarch butterfly life cycle are divided into four phases. The first stage is the Egg stage which is very small, oval, rounded or cylindrical. The second stage is the larva or caterpillar. It comes after the egg stage. The third stage is Pupa or Chrysalis. The caterpillar rapidly changes inside the chrysalis. The metamorphism process occurs in pupa as the old body parts of caterpillar undergoes a transformation process. The fourth stage is Adult Butterfly. I can say that this is a good example of the complex life cycle. The body of the butterfly changes in every stage. However, this strategy is only applied to butterfly. Some organisms have the same physiology in the embryonic stage until the mature stage.

Butterfly life cycle.JPG

Kalman, B. and Reiach, M. (2002). The life cycle of a butterfly. New York: Crabtree Pub. Co.

Adaptation Strategies

Animal survival in the desert is one of the most important adaptation strategies. In the desert, animals adapt their behavioral and physiological mechanism to overcome the heat and water issues. Birds, such as the Phainopepla, can breed during the cool periods of the year. It leaves the desert and move to higher cooler areas. Many animals restrict their activities in the day and start their activities in the cooler temperature of the night. Some animals retain water by occupying deep moist soil during the daylight hours. I like this type of adaptation, as it proofs that animals are intelligent, and they can keep their body water stable. It supports the theory of Darwin of Natural Selection. In polar regions, some animals hibernate, take shelter, or even migrate to warmer places (BBC Nature, 2016).  An excellent example of the survival strategies of animals can be found in Chameleon. It can change their skin color to avoid predators. However, I believe it does not have any strategy to adapt to climate or environmental changes. If the environment change, I guess, it might be threatening.

Mitosis and Cell Division in Animals

Mitosis is a process to split the cell nucleus into two nuclei.  It helps in the cell division processes. It divided into several phases. Interphase is the phase that occurs before the mitosis processes. It includes the G1 (first gap), S (Synthesis of DNA), G2 (Second Gap), and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). Prophase starts at the beginning of mitosis process. The chromosomes’ replication takes place. It produces 12 chromatids in 6 pairs of sister chromatids. The nuclear envelope begins to divide into small vesicles. In Prometaphase, the centrosome moves to the two poles of the cell. In the Metaphase, the sister pairs of chromatids gather in the center of the cell align along metaphase plan. In the Anaphase, the polar microtubules separate the chromatids and push the chromosomes to each pole. Finally, in the Telophase, the two cell daughters are formed, and the cell separate to produce two distinct nuclei. I guess, the mitosis process of animals is little similar to those in the plant, but I can argue that it is more complicated in animals than a plant.

There are some differences and little similarities between replication processes in different species. I will here compare between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes as they are the two major classes of species (Stillman, 2008).

Mitosis_National_Geographic_Book.JPG

Biggs, A. (2004). Biology: The Dynamic of Life. 3rd ed. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

 

 
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‘Sicario’ Sequel Story Details Teased

Director Denis Villeneuve’s thriller really felt like a satisfying, whole piece, and the film’s rich thematic subtext—from America’s foreign policy with regards to violence to what it’s like to be a woman in a man’s world—offered more than enough reason to return for repeating viewings. Regardless, the Sicario sequel Soldado materialized quite quickly, with screenwriter Taylor Sheridan (who also penned this year’s indie darling Hell or High Water) also returning to pen the screenplay.

But Soldado is missing a couple of big pieces of the Sicario puzzle: star Emily Bluntand Villeneuve. Indeed, the follow-up continues on without Blunt’s character, with Benicio Del Toro’s hitman and Josh Brolin’s CIA operative instead taking the lead, while Stefano Sollima—who helmed the TV series Gomorrah—takes over directing duties.

But with Blunt’s character absent, will Soldado feel like a true sequel or more of a spin-off?

“It’s more of a stand-alone spin-off. It’s not a sequel or a prequel. It really is yet another examination told from this male point of view, rather than from a female point of view. It’s pretty cool.”

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Emilia Clarke to Join Standalone ‘Han Solo’ Movie

The standalone Han Solo film, currently known as the Untitled Han Solo Star Wars Anthology Film, has just added some star-power in the form of Emilia Clarke. StarWars.com itself broke the news tonight in a short, official press release, confirming that the Game of Thrones star would be joining Alden Ehrenreichand Donald Glover.

According to Variety’s Justin Kroll, Kiersey Clemons (Neighbors 2), Jessica Henwick (Game of Thrones), and Tessa Thompson (Creed) were also being considered for the role that ultimately went to Clarke. Details on Clarke’s role have yet to be revealed. Fans can look forward to seeing the next Star Wars anthology film on May 25, 2018.

Check out the press release in full below:

Emilia Clarke is heading to a galaxy far, far away — and she’s going to meet Han and Chewie.

StarWars.com is excited to announce that Clarke, known for her stirring portrayal of Daenerys Targaryen in Game of Thrones, will join the upcoming untitled Han Solo Star Warsmovie. Clarke’s role will round out a dynamic cast of characters that Han and Chewie will encounter on their adventures.

Clarke joins Alden Ehrenreich and Donald Glover — previously cast as Han Solo and Lando Calrissian, respectively — in the highly-anticipated film, which is set prior to the original Star Wars trilogy.

The untitled Han Solo movie, helmed by directors Phil Lord and Christopher Miller, is set for release in 2018.

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‘Green Hornet’ Reboot In The Works

Next to Disney and WB, Paramount Pictures is doing a superhero movie of its own, and the studio has nabbed a promising director to bring the project to life. Per Deadline, The Accountant and Warrior helmer Gavin O’Connor is attached to direct The Green Hornet for Paramount and Chernin Entertainment. The idea here is to put a serious twist on the crime fighter, with this new movie re-envisioning Britt Reid as “an edgy protagonist capable of being the catalyst for a new franchise.” Sean O’Keefe is penning the script and will work closely with O’Connor to develop the film, which O’Connor will also produce.

The Green Hornet made his debut as a radio serial and subsequently moved into the realm of comic books. The hero, Britt Reid, is a wealthy newspaper publisher who moonlights as a masked crime-fighting vigilante, working alongside his loyal partner and driver Kato. It’s basically Batman with a few minor tweaks, and while Green Hornet predates Batman by a couple of years (1936 vs. 1939), Batman clearly went more theatrical and, as a result, became more popular.

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Robert Redford Announces His Retirement

Robert Redford, whose professional acting career launched over 55 years ago with a handful of high-profile theater and television guest appearances before rocketing to film success with Inside Daisy Clover and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, has revealed his intentions to retire from acting in a new interview with his grandson, Dylan, hosted at the Walker Art Center’s website.

“I’m getting tired of acting,” Redford said within the conversation. “I’m an impatient person, so it’s hard for me to sit around and do take after take after take. At this point in my life, age 80, it’d give me more satisfaction because I’m not dependent on anybody. It’s just me, just the way it used to be, and so going back to sketching—that’s sort of where my head is right now.  So, I’m thinking of moving in that direction and not acting so much.”

The 26-film retrospective Robert Redford: Independent/Visionary spans Redford’s long career and concludes this week at the Walker Art Center.

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Michael Keaton Confirmed as Vulture

The relatively new working relationship between Sony and Marvel has appeared to start without any major problems. The third big screen Spider-Man debuted in Captain America: Civil War earlier this year and only further increased interest in seeing more of the character. Thankfully, Spider-Man: Homecoming is less than a year away from now, giving Tom Holland a chance to show what he can do as the lead of this franchise.

Early reports for the villain of the film named Michael Keaton as the top choice, and he eventually nabbed the role after initially falling out of talks. His confirmation has now come with any official word regarding his character.

Kevin Feige recently confirmed in an interview with Toronto Sun that Keaton is in fact playing Vulture in Homecoming. This is the first time that anyone directly involved with the film has confirmed the role, despite the fact that it had been heavily speculated, assumed, and reported.

We’ve had a wish list and most of them in the near-term are coming together. Cate Blanchett is playing Hela in Thor: Ragnarok. Michael Keaton’s Vulture in Spider-Man is something. And of course, finally, we’re showcasing Josh Brolin’s Thanos (in Avengers: Infinity War). We’re looking forward to that very much.

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‘The Simpsons’ Becomes the Longest-Running Series Ever

With the news that Fox has ordered both the 29th and 30th seasons of The Simpsons, the long-running animated series climbs to a total of 669 episodes, breaking the record previously set by Gunsmoke, which had 635.

The Simpsons recently celebrated its 600th episode, a milestone achievement for the cultural phenomenon that began in late 1989 and has remained one of the most groundbreaking and innovative entertainment franchises recognizable throughout the world. It was the first animated series to win a Peabody Award and was nominated for an Academy Award in 2012 for the theatrical short The Longest Daycare.

Here’s what Dana Walden and Gary Newman, CEOs of Fox Television Group, had to say:

“This is yet another record-setting moment for what is truly a landmark series. The Simpsons has meant so much to the network, the studio and everyone at Fox, and its continued cultural impact around the globe is a testament to the combined brilliance of Matt, Jim and Al. Congratulations to everyone who works on this groundbreaking series – from the voice cast and producers to the writers and production team – you comprise one of the greatest collections of creative talent in the history of the medium. And to the millions of Simpsons fans around the world, thank you for watching all these years. We’re happy to tell you there’s lots more to come.”

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Johnny Depp Joins Fantastic Beasts 2

While we still have a few weeks to go before the release of Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, Warner Bros. is wasting no time in getting the sequel ready. Indeed, we learned last month that author/screenwriter J.K. Rowling is planning a five-film franchise in all, with director David Yates—who helmed the final four Harry Potter movies in addition to Fantastic Beasts—also returning to helm Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them 2. And now, a major casting announcement has been made: the sequel will be adding Johnny Depp in a co-starring role.

Per Deadline, Depp is set to star in the Fantastic Beasts sequel, but details are mum regarding his role. However, the report notes that he may have a brief cameo in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, and with an actor of his caliber joining the Wizarding World, one imagines it’s a significant character.

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